S. A. Yanina, Juchi Coins from the Excavation and Collection of the Kuibyshev Expedition in Bulghar in 1957, vol. 3. 1960 (Moscow) Publication of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, ed. A. P. Smirnov.
Go to Yanina volume 3: page 2

        At the time of the archeological work in Bulghar city in 1957 258 Juchi coins were obtained of which 50 examples were found by excavation (15 silver and 35 copper coins), and 208 examples were collected by participants of the expedition in the city and its surroundings (29 silver and 179 copper coins). Only one copper coin (B-57,No 16) was completely spoiled by our definition.
        The current article appears as the third catalog of Juchi coins of the Kuibyshev expedition. (1) Parallel with the publication of new types and variants of Juchi coins (for the collection of the Kuibyshev expedition) continues the work of systematically expressing the main outlines in the determination of the chronology of aneigraphic or undated coins.
        Finds of 1957 (as regards the great bulk of coins) repeats the types and variants already known from the two previous publications. This circumstance determines the character of the current publication, placing new finds in already classified types. The value of the material, obtained in 1957 consists above all in this, that thanks to the increasing collection of coins, the basic types appear of more widely spread coins. This allows us to make final conclusions about in a series of propositions about the possible dates of different disputed types. Besides this, the excavation of 1957 produced a series of interesting coins, not found before in Bulghar.
        Anonymous Coins with the Tamgha of the House of Batu. The commonly accepted date for this group of coins is 1280-1300, which is established as more or less proven. Only in regards to copper coin type No. 14 (according to catalogs 1 and 2) (2) are some doubts raised. In the preceding issues of this catalog, this copper coin type ( with the tamgha of the House of Batu on the obverse and the legend To good fortune, a new pul  on the reverse) by a series of indications was attributed by me to the years 1280-1300. The basis of this dating stood on the premise of the tamgha of the House of Batu, the absence of the appearance of a date or place of mint (that was inherent to anonymous coins at the end of the XII century), the support of the first part of the legend To good fortune  appearing ona silver coin of 688 AH; and, finally, the coin is found together with types of dated coins of the first third of the XIV century. All these conditions seemed sufficiently convincing until now. At this time, two other indications have been brought to my attention, which were not taken into account by me before. These indications permit us to still further narrow the limits of the minting of this type of coin under discussion.
        The second part of the legend new pul  directly reveals that these coins existed in circulation before some kind of earlier old  pul. Such an earlier type is able to be reckoned as the copper coins of the beginning of the period of the Golden Horde minting (see No. 2 and No. 4 in catalog volumes 1 and 2). (3) However, this supposition is not likely, since due to the underdeveloped monetary circulation of the second half of the 13th century, copper coins were not characteristic; and, at the time, still did not form a traditional custom of using copper as a monetary metal. The possibility of an earlier type of pul is the anonymous copper types of coins minted in Bulghar with ornamental designs on both sides (see No. 12, catalog, vol. 1). (4) Similar designs are found on silver coins at the end of the 13th century.
        The same term new pul  is able to be only connected with the well known new money, which arose in opposition to the meaning old money  at the moment of conducting a reform of the money in circulation. Studying all the data concerning the chronological indications of the distribution of the copper coins No. 14, we find only one monetary reform with which the type is able to be connected. This is the reform of Tokhta, introduced in 710 AH,  found its full expression by establishing the limits of the weight norm for minting, and in the creation of a new type of silver coin, which on the basis of his design continued in the coinage of the Golden Horde for the whole of the 14th century. Dated copper coins which could be possibly indisputably related to the reform of Tokhta, do not exist. However, it is difficult to imagine that this well prepared monetary reform was accompanied by the complete removal from circulation of the whole variety of existing old coins and managed without the issue of small change copper coins. (About this removal, hordes of the 14th century are witnesses in which the very early types appear only with the post-reform coins of Tokhta.) It seems really important to us, then, that the circumstances around the reform of 710 AH conclude with the circulation of small silver coins of the old issue and did not introduce in its place any new small denominations (of copper). In this connection, special attention to the copper coins, in my opinion, must inevitably arise.
        If such an issue existed, then it is able to appear only as type No. 14. The general style o the coins, presenting on them the tamgha of the House of Batu, undoubtedly resembling the dated copper coins of Uzbek of 734 AH, minted in Bulghar,-all speak to this, that the type No 14 was a production of the Bulghar mint. Although silver post-reform coins of Tokta were minted only in Sarai, the Bulghar origins of this widespread type does not contradict its connection with the reform. Already in the time of Uzbeg, Juchi monetary material belonged to a fully known and defined division of labor  between the Bulghar and Sarai mints: the first minted the majority of silver coins, and the second-copper.
        All these considerations establish for me that copper coin No. 14 is to be placed with contemporary issues of the coins of Tokta.
Coins with the Images of Two-headed Eagles. In the fist two volumes of our current catalog was undertaken an attempt to establish the dating more exactly of discovered types of copper coins of the XIV century to the first decade of the rule of Jani Beg I , 1343-1352. (5) (Anonymous, without a year, mint of Sarai al-Jedid, with the stylized depiction of a two-headed eagle, with a mark of value-see No. 49-50 in catalog volumes 1 and 2).
        The questions about the origins of the two-headed eagle on Juchi coins was undertaken by different investigators more than once. In the 1920's, it provoked not a little argument that found reflections in the literature. B. V. Zaikonski (6) and I. N. Borojin (7) saw here the results of influence of Byzantium and dates the issue of these types of coins to the time of rule of Uzbeg (1313-1342), connecting the depiction of the two-headed eagle with the marriage of Uzbegs to the daughter of a Byzantine emperor, well known to Arabic sources under the name of Baiya-lin-hatuni (8). The limit of the date of minting of these coins, B. V. Zaikovski is reckoned as 1334- the year of departure of czarina Bayalun to Constantinople, from where, it is well known, she did not return to Ordu.  (9)
        A similar interpretation called for a decisive rebuff from R. R. Rasmer. (10) In this not long, but extraordinarily detailed article, R. R. Fasmer with sufficient persuasiveness shows the failure to account for better assumptions, which, apparently, were based on unfamiliarity with the literature concerning the question. Such investigators as B. Kyene, G. Nyttsel, and A. V. Oreshnikov, (11) who are especially acquainted with the history of two-headed eagles, all definitely declare for an Eastern origin of this emblem, affirming hsi definite opinion by brilliant facts. On Muslim coins, the image of the two-headed eagle is found already in the XIII century from the mints of Zengid and Ortuk. (12) Of these, the last, the emblem is ascribed to the Hulagu, about which there is evidenced the image on a coin of 678 AH (1279/1280) minted in Irbilya. (13)
        On Byzantine seals the two-headed eagle appears only in the second quarter of the XIV century under Emperor Andronikos III (1325-1343) (14), and on coins only in the second half of the XIV century on Trebizond coins under Comenus, Aleksei III (1349-1390) and Manuel III (1390-1417). (15)
        Characteristic differences of the depictions of the two-headed eagle by Byzantine and the Golden Horde is observed in their use of the emblem. If by Byzantium, as afterwards in Russia, the two-headed eagle became a possession of government heraldry, then by the Golden Horde, it appears only as one of many varied images on copper coins, which is not in any way attributable in even a distant way to Byzantine influence.
        R. R. Fasmer clearly and accurately formulated these observations: ...and generally it seems to me, if Byzantine influence on images of Juchi coins, then it would follow so much the more that one would expect the influence of Byzantine coinage on the monetary affairs of the Golden Horde. Between Juchi and Byzantine coins there was never observed any kind of resemblance.  (16)
        The opinion of R. R. Fasmer about the Eastern origins of the two-headed eagle on Juchi coins was wholly different from N. P. Likachev. (17)
        Spurning the unfounded general theoretical premisses, B. V. Zaikovski also makes a series of observations in regards to the dating of these widely distributed coins, based on a formal analysis. These observations should also be examined in this current article.
         By the weight, diameter, and inscription features,  writes B. V. Zaikovski, and also the main images, by all these circumstance, including the mark of value, these coins can only be assigned to the rule of Khan Uzbeg (1313-1342). Namely, on the coins of Uzbeg, from 13 types of copper coins, cataloged by Fren, on 6 types were indicated the value, of which besides the given types, on 4 we have literally this inscriptino 16 pul-denga.  until uzbeg, the the exception of very rare examples of Batiya and Birdi, existing with the name of the Most High Mongol Khan, there were no copper coins after him on which any value was stated on the coins and this very type was noticeably avoided on the currency as the monetary affairs of the Golden Horde declined.  (18).
        Actually, by weight and measure, the copper coins with the two-headed eagle go with dated copper coins of Uzbeg and this is the uniquely true observation of B. V. Zaikovsky. However, it does not decide the question of category, it speaks only about providence.
        Comparing the inscriptions used by coin minters manufactured at the time of Uzbek speaks not for,  but against  the comparison of B. V. Zaikovsky. For coins of the time of Uzbek, especially for copper coins, are characterized by the use of Cufic style of written letters (fig. 1); for coins of the time of Jani Beg, minted at Sarai al-Jedid, are typically written in Naskhi script.
        Examining the designation of value of the coins of Uzbeg also decides nothing, just as B. V.  Zaikovsky uses the argument, which he himself recognizes still needs a foundation. The unarguable conclusion about this is that the designated value of the copper coins exists exclusively in the mints of Uzbeg. It follows that the mints of Uzbeg of some types of anonymous copper coins, which are very widespread, have only a relationship firstly to coins with the tamgha of the House of Batu (highest date is from the time of Tokhta), and secondly, to coins with the two-headed eagle.
        Assertions about the extreme rarity of copper coins with the name of Mangu Timur Khan does not reflect the real situation of the material of earlier Juchi numismatics.
        In this way, the whole system of evidence presented by B. V. Zaikovsky is so helpless that it does not withstand the simple confrontation with important and well known numismatic material.
        In the article, B. V. Zaikovsky presents a short summary of coins collected by him in Tsarevski city. Of 262 examples minted only four belong to Uzbeg (copper and silver, Sarai). More than half (142 examples) belong to the mintage of Jani Beg. Coins with the depiction of the two-headed eagle are represented here by 56 examples.         The statistics speak for themselves. If one finds only 4 coins of Uzbeg, but coins of Jani Beg number 142, then the 56 examples with the two-headed eagle belong without any doubt to the mints of Jani Beg.
        The coins with the two-headed eagle can be dated to the time of Uzbeg even by A. A. Krotkov (19), who otherwise doesnt even argue his own point of view. However, he reports one important find, which once again shows the bankruptcy of the Byzantine  hypothesis of B. V. Zaikovsky and I. N. Borojin: By the size and weight, they are able to assign them to the time of Uzbeg Khan and not earlier than 737 AH (underlined here and elsewhere by me-S. Yanina), since on one coin from the collection of the Saratov Archeological Museum, having the image of lion and sun worn away, there is a counterstamp of a type of two-headed eagle minted on a coin of 737 AH.  (20)
        Summarizing all these statements, I am able to name the following basic reasons in favor of dating the coins with the image of a two-headed eagle to the time of Jani Beg I (1343-1352):
        1. Coins with the name Uzbeg, minted in Sarai al-Jedid do not exist;
        2. The first coin type (silver) minted at Sarai al-Jedid is dated 741 AH and minted with the name of Jani Beg;
        3. Copper coins with the depiction of the two-headed eagle, minted in Sarai al-Jedid in 743 AH without showing any face value is extremely rare, which allows us to see in them relics of the beginning stages of minting coins with the two-headed eagle;
        4. Finds of coins with the two-headed eagle, dated 751 AH (21), determined the possible end date of this mintage.
Among the materials of the 1957 (expedition) appears some other interesting types. A special note is made of a silver coin of Shadi Beg, 807 AH, minted in Bulghar (No 144a). U?ntil this time, silver coins minted in the XV century have not been found in bulghar. Interesting also is the lyre-like counterstamp (No. 150, VI). Its inscription makes ti like a tamgha, forming a basic stamp of some types of silver coins of Ulu-Mohammed (see figure 2, on page 220).
        The current publication continues the catalog of Juchi coins of the Kuibyshev expedition. This determines the form of the documented material, and the necessity of preserving the adopted order of the first two volumes enumeration of types and variants of coins. New types collected are indicated by the letter (n) and a number.
        For successful work with the catalog I repeat some clarifications:
1. The drawings (reconstructing the impressions) and photographs of coins are established by analogy with coins in the colelction of the Government Historical Museum that has the most satisfactory preservation of excavated materials.
2. Only new types and variants (for the Kuibyshev expedition) are reproduced in drawings.
3. The weight of copper coins i not given because of poor preservation, customary for such material that is produced from excavations.
4. In square brackets is produced the reconstructed elements of obliterated or omitted letters and words.
5. When reconstruction the impression, two dashes note the part of the legend of which the reading is not forthcoming.
6. Effaced numbers of the year is signified by a cross (X).
7. To this article is appended an inventory of coins, found by archeological work with designation of their stratigraphical data.
8. Coins of chance collection are not given a separate inventory. They appear in the catalog with the designation chance find.e
        In the catalof and inventory the following abbreviations are used of published and certified coins:

Fr. No.-X. M. Fren, Coins of the Khans of Ulus Juchi or the Golden Horden with Coins of Some Mohammed Dynasties in Addition, Moscow, 1832, pp. 418-425.

Sav. No.-- P.S. Saviliev, Coins of the Juchi, Chagatai, Jelairid, and Others, Circulating in the Golden Horde Epoch of Toktamish. Transactions of the Archeological Society, vol. 12, part 1, Moscow, 1858.

Grig. No.-- V. V. Grigoriev, Inventory of Hoards of Golden Horde Coins Found Near the Ruins of Sarai, Transactions of A-NO, vol. 2, Moscow, 1850, pp. 1-63.

Rec.-- Ch. M. Fraehnii, Recensio numovum muhammedanorum. Petersburg, 1826

Krotkov, page, No.-A. A. Krotkov. Two Collections of Juchi Coins. Works of Lower Volga Local History Society, issue 37, Saratov, 1930, page, No.

KE, I, No.-S. A. Yanina. Juchi Coins from the Excavation and Collection of the Kuibyshev Expedition in Bulghar in 1946-1952. MIA, No. 42, 1954, pp. 424-484, No.

KE, II, No.-S. A. Yanina. Juchi Coins from the Excavation and Collection of the Kuibyshev Expedition in Bulghar in 1946-1952. MIA, No. 61, 1958, pp. 392-423, No.

B (with year and No.)-- Bulghar, year excavated, No. in the inventory.
                        Catalog of Juchi Coins of the Kuibyshev Expedition

                                                Baraka Khan (1256-1266)
No. 1: Silver dinar, Obverse: An-Nasir id-din-Allah, (an Orthodox (true believing) sovereign)
                               Reverse: Dinar, minted Bulghar
1 example. Weight 1.52 grams (B-57, No 45); Rec., p. 187, No. 1; Fr. No 19.

No. 2: Copper, Obverse: An-Nasir id-din-Allah, (an Orthodox (true believing) sovereign)
                        Reverse: Earthly life is short, therefore make God welcome.
15 examples. (B-57, No. 12, 17, 32, 39, and 11 examples of chance finds) Rec., p. 188, No. 2; Fr. No 21.

No. 4: Copper, Obverse: Mangu Khan, Tamgha of Mangu, supreme
                       Reverse: Minted, Tamgha of Mangu, Bulghar
5 examples (B-57, chance finds). Rec., p. 191, No. 1; Fr. No 3.

                                            Toqtu Khan (1290-1313)
No. 14*: Copper, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in a triangle.
                            Reverse: To good fortune, a new pul (Mongol expression translated in Arabic script.)
14 examples. (B-57, No 50 and 13 examples of chance finds), Fr. No. 381.*Was 10a changed to 14 according to errata-David Elliott)

No. 9b*: Silver, Obverse: Most High Sultan Ghiyath (but without al din -S. Ya) Toqtu, righteous judge, may his rule
                          Reverse: No God except Allah, Mohammed is the messenger of God, minted Ukyak
1 example. Weight 1.29 grams (B-57, chance find). Sav. No. 507. Analogous to the coin, dated 707 AH, listed by P. S. Saveliev under No. 506.*(Changed from 10b according to errata-David Elliott)

No. 10: Silver, Obverse: Most High Sultan Ghiyath al din Toqtu, ruler (Ugric script)
                        Reverse: Mint Sarai Mahrus 25, 710 year (1310/1311)
2 examples. Weight 1.23 and 1.07 grams (B-57, No 6, and a chance find). Fr. No. 28.

                                 Anonymous Coins Minted between 1280 and 1300
No. 12: Copper, Obverse: Mint of Bulghar
                          Reverse: Ornamental lattice of a quadrifoil type.
6 examples. (B-57, chance finds). Fr. No 374.  

No. 13: Silver, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in a rectangular design
                       Reverse: Legitimate Sultan
2 examples. Weight 1.05 and 0.96 grams (B-57, No 23, 44), Fr. No 375.

No. 13a: Silver, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in circling lines and dots
                          Reverse: see No. 13
1 example. Weight 1.31 grams (B-57, chance find).

No. 13b: Silver, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in circling lines and broken lines.
                         Reverse: (?) lordship and success
1 example. Weight 1.35 grams (B-57, chance find).
No. 13c: Silver, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in a rectangular design along the sides of which are placed vines.
                       Reverse: Ornaments with vines
1 example. Weight 1.24 grams (B-57, chance finds).

No. 19: Silver, Obverse: Tamgha of the House of Batu in a doubled line design.
                       Reverse: Geometrical ornament.
1 example. Weight 1.35 grams (B-57, chance find).

                                                   Uzbeg Khan (1313-1339)
No. 30: Copper, Obverse: In center:16 pul-denga, circling Mint of Sarai, 721 (=1321).
                          Reverse: Five-pointed star.
1 example (B-57, chance find),  Fr. No 67.

No. 37: Copper, Obverse: Pul of Bulghar
                       Reverse: Center: 5-pointed star, Batu tamgha, in points 734 (1333/1334)
3 examples (B-57, No. 34 and two examples of chance finds), Fr. No 53.

No. 38 or 38a: Silver, Obverse: In a cartouche: Most High Sultan Uzbeg Khan. Along the sides of the cartouche: Mint of
                                                Sarai, 734 (1333/1334)
                       Reverse: No God except All, Mohammed is His messenger; Around: the names of                                         four orthodox caliphs: Abu-Bekra, Omar,Osman, Ali  
1 example, Weight 1. 04 grams, (B-57, chance find), Fr. No. 51.

No. 40: Copper, Obverse: In a cartouche divided in two: Most High Commander. Along the sides of the cartouche: Coin of
                                        Sarai, 737
                       Reverse: Lion walking right, on his back a rising sun (a sign of the zodiac, the sun with the stars of Leo)
22 examples (B-57, No. 14, 15, 21, 31, and 18 examples of chance finds), and one with the counterstamp victory  (KE, No. 147) (B-57, chance find), Fr. No. 56.

No. 33 or 44: Silver, Obverse: Most High Sultan, vine- Sarai - vine, Mohammed Uzbeg Khan. XXX (the year is effaced)
                       Reverse: Allah, no God besides, Mohammed, messenger of God, on the second line one vine, above the
                                     third and fourth line two vines; Around: May Allah bless and preserve him.e
1 example. Weight 1.37 grams (B-57, chance find), Rec., p. 213, No. 24 and p. 221, No. 43.

                                                Jani Beg Khan (1339-1357)
No. 47: Silver, Obverse: Righteous Sultan Jani Beg Khan (Urgic script), Jelal-id-din Mahmud sultan
                    Reverse: Mint Sarai al-Jedid, 743 (1342/1343).
1 example, Weight 1.28 grams (B-57, chance find), Fr., No.73.

No. 49-50: Copper, Obverse: Mint of Sarai al Jedid, 16 deng.
                               Reverse: Stylized two-headed eagle (compare No. 48)
47 examples (B-57, No. 7, 11, 29, 43, and 43 examples of chance finds), Fr. No. 387; Krotkov, p. 13, No. 6.

No. 53: Silver, Obverse: High Sultan Jalal al-din Mahmud Jani Beg Khan sultan
                        Reverse: Mint of Sarai al-Jedid, year 45, to the left 7, (1344/1345)
1 example, Weight 1.47 g (B-57, chance find).

No. 54: Silver, Obverse: Righteous sultan Jani Beg khan.
                        Reverse: 6, Mint of Sarai al-Jedid, year, 47 (1345/1346)
1 example, Weight 0.78 g (B-57, chance find), Rec., p. 231, No. 15.

No. 57: Silver, Obverse: Righteous Sultan Jani Beg khan, above second line three vines.
                        Reverse: 7, Mint of Sarai al-Jedid, 47 (1346/1347)
3 examples, Weight 1.53 g, 1.48 g, 0.62 g (B-57, chance finds), Fr. No. 79.

No. 58: Silver, Obverse: Righteous Sultan Jani Beg, above second line 4 vines.
                        Reverse: 8, Mint of Sarai al-Jedid, 47 (1347/1348)
1 example, Weight 0.44 g (B-57, No. 47), Fr. No. 83.
No. 58a: Silver, Obverse: same as 58.
                          Reverse: same as 58, but the letters of the year are arranged differently
1 example, Weight 1.25 g , damaged, (B-57, chance find).

No. 59: Silver, Obverse: Righteous Sultan Mahmud Jani Beg khan.
                        Reverse: Mint of Sarai, vine, al Mahrus, 749 (1348/1349)
1 example, Weight 1.35 g (B-57, chance find), Fr. No. 85.

No. 64b: Copper, Obverse: Minted 1,50,7,100, i.e. 751 AH (1350/1351).
                            Reverse: Two-headed eagle (cf. No. 49-50, but more realistic).
1 example, poorly preserved (B-57, chance find), KE II, p. 400,fig. 3, No. 5.

No. 65: Silver, Obverse: Righteous Sultan Jani Beg khan.
                        Reverse: Kufic script, Mint Gulistan, 752 (1351/1352)
1 example, Weight 0.50 g (B-57, chance find, Fr. No. 91.

No. 67: Copper, Obverse: Mint of Sarai al-Jedid, 752 (1351/1352)
                          Reverse: Ornament of a type of blossoming flower
2 examples, (B-57, chance find) and one example with the counterstamp victory,  (KE, No. 147) (B-57, chance find),  Fr. No. 97.